Chlorine Dioxide - Chlorine dioxide exists as a gas at normal temperatures and pressures and has the chemical formula ClO2. It is a highly effective, eco-friendly microbiocide that carries a number of important regulatory approvals from several international organisations including the US EPA, FDA and UK Government for many of its uses. For more useful information about chlorine dioxide please review the FAQ area of our website.
Chlorine dioxide is a strong bactericide and virucide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm. It will eliminate both planktonic and sessile bacteria; disinfect surfaces; and rapidly destroy problematic biofilm. With minimal contact time, it is highly effective against many pathogenic organisms including bacterial spores, Legionella, Tuberculosis, MRSA, VRE, Listeria, Salmonella, amoebal cysts, Giardia cysts, E. coli, and Cryptosporidium. Importantly, chlorine dioxide also destroys biofilm so bacterial re-growth is significantly impeded.
SafeOx offer several alternative technical solutions for the delivery of varying amounts of high purity chlorine dioxide. Each delivery method has been developed to suit specific demand and application environments. Chlorine dioxide products include:
Broad spectrum biocide
Chlorine dioxide is highly effective when used to control:
Chlorine dioxide has long been recognised as a very effective biocide and sterilising agent for both large and small scale industrial and commercial applications. It is approved and recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as an environmentally friendly drinking water additive to replace chlorine (which is known to form carcinogenic by-products).
The criteria for disinfection, as defined by the US EPA, are as follows:
Chlorine dioxide meets these criteria and is now used extensively across the
Highly effective disinfectant
Microbial infection is responsible for thousands of deaths and many more illnesses across the world each year. Frequent outbreaks of disease have been linked to food handling and processing (Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, and E. Coli), drinking water (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) and hotels, cruise ships (Noro virus), hospitals and office buildings (MRSA, Legionella). The incidence of Legionellosis is frequently misdiagnosed as common pneumonia. This under-reporting of Legionella has recently come to light as more and more international health organisations recognise the need for control plans against this potentially deadly disease.
Chlorine dioxide is shown to be an effective disinfectant at residual concentrations between 0.2 and 0.8 ppm. Chlorine dioxide acts to penetrate the cell wall of microorganisms and disrupts metabolic function. This is more efficient than other oxidisers that just "burn" the surface of whatever they come in contact with. This allows for lower effective concentrations of Chlorine dioxide to be used when compared to other oxidiser products.
Chlorine dioxide, like ozone, is a dissolved gas that penetrates biofilm by molecular diffusion. However, unlike ozone, Chlorine dioxide is stable and soluble, allowing it to travel to the base of the film where it attacks microorganisms and destroys the biofilm at its point of attachment. Other oxidisers react mostly on the surface of the biofilm to form an oxidised layer, like charring on wood. This precludes further penetration. No other biocide has proved to control biofilm better than Chlorine dioxide.
Effective over a wide pH range
Because Chlorine dioxide is a dissolved gas, it does not ionise to form weak acids (as chlorine and bromine do) in aqueous solutions. This allows chlorine dioxide to be effective over a wide pH range. For example, the pH dependent speciation of chlorine produces hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Hypochlorite is only 1/30 to 1/200 as effective as HOCl. Chlorine dioxide being a neutral species with rapid disinfection kinetics, is 100% available for disinfection in hard or soft water.